Les télécommunications au premier millénaire av. J.- C. au Proche-Orient ancien (French Edition)
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Published online: 06 Nov Notes on contributor Jeremy W. Article Metrics Views. Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. Login options Log in. Username Password Forgot password? Shibboleth OpenAthens. Restore content access Restore content access for purchases made as guest. Article Purchase - Online Checkout. This first meeting is focusing on cultivated cottons in the Old World, especially the Indian subcontinent, the south-west Asia, the Africa and the Mediterranean regions Gossypium herbaceum et Gossypium arboreum , while considering studies, methods and protocols developed for American cottons Gossypium barbadense , Gossypium hirsutum.
The large chronological and geographical framework will allow the perception and understanding of long term dynamics that raised cotton from a tropical wild plant to a valuable crop at the heart of the agriculture and economics of the ancient and modern world. Cross dressing was, indeed, often used for comic purpose in drama and for character assassination in forensic court speeches.
The clear message, across the cultures of antiquity, was that men should dress like men, and women like women.
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Less consideration has been given to the notion that certain textiles and colours were considered more suitable to either men or women. In reality, many modes of production probably existed side-by-side and the making of textiles not so easily grafted on the labour of one sex of another. The workshop will examine attitudes to textiles, dress and gender across the Near East and Mediterranean culture in antiquity c. Textile craft is very old and has persisted, in its traditional form, for millennia until the beginning of the industrial revolution.
The analysis of textile tools can help to understand the spinning, braiding and weaving techniques used in the past and the possible influences and exchanges of practice that may have taken place between East and West. Textiles accompany man throughout his life, and, particularly in the form of dress play a ley part in the construction of gender, individual and collective identities.
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Despite the fact that clothing shapes were simple, social and cultural differences could be expressed in the type of material, decorations, length of the garment, etc. Can we see elements of exchange and influence? Barbara Couturaud: How to understand a garment? Considerations on a feminine dress in Mari IIIrd mill. This exploratory workshop will deal with the vocabulary used for dyes, mordents and spices.
Textual data will be confronted to experimental archaeology: types of dye stuffs used in antiquity will be tested experimentally, and we will compare the results with ancient dye receipts, and explore the relationship between spices and dyes in ancient texts. This workshop will start at Centre for Textile Research, SAXO-Institute, University of Copenhagen In this session various ancient textual sources about dyes and spices, will be presented by the organizers and by the participants.
In the evening, we will serve a spiced and dyed dinner in the center. The second day will take place with one days at Sagnlandet Lejre where experts in experimental archaeology Ida Demant and Eva Andersson Strand will conduct session of experimental testing of various plant dyes, eventually also insect dyes. The textile craft, with its complex technology and socio-cultural significance, has been a key craft in the societies of Bronze Age Europe and the Mediterranean. Although complex and socially and economically important, textile technology has been often considered rather traditional and non-innovative throughout many centuries of the Bronze Age.
The present session aims to examine textile technology in search of its traditional and innovative elements, by investigating the evidence of archaeological textiles, textile tools and their changes over time, the botanical and faunal environment, textual sources and the imagery of textiles and cloths. We particularly welcome all papers discussing the various aspects of traditions and innovations traced in textile technology, especially those regarding raw materials and their processing, textile techniques, textile tools and equipment, the organisation of textile production and the dynamics of its specialisations, cross-cultural and cross-craft interactions, and changes in the textile craft in relation to socio-cultural transformations of the past societies.
The Circulation of Textiles and the Ancient Economy. Textiles and Fibres Through Time is a thematic one-day symposium that will bring together a variety of speakers from different disciplines. In the past, a wide range of raw materials including wool, animal hair, flax, hemp, grasses, reeds, briars, willow and bark have been used to create artefacts such as clothing, bedding, floor-coverings, sails, baskets, ropes and many other items. These activities have ranged in scale from craftwork to fulfil household needs, through cottage industries to factory production.
The aim of the symposium is to explore the history, archaeology, economics and sociology of the raw materials, production, and use of textiles and fibres, with a particular emphasis on Ireland. Speakers may wish to consider issues such as: How did the development of new or improved agricultural and production techniques affect society? What were the driving forces in the evolution of textile or fibre production?
Who were the gainers and losers? Speakers and poster presentations are invited from a diverse range of backgrounds including archaeology, history, economics, folk-life and sociology. Papers will be 20 minutes in length, with time for questions. A poster session with mini-presentations of 5 minutes will also be held. Abstracts of no more than words, plus your details, including affiliation if applicable should be emailed to novembersymposiumahsi gmail. Legal it may be, but it is also arguably illegitimate with regard to the interests of the public authorities and government agencies in the countries concerned, because it reduces their tax revenues and deprives them of resources that could be used to extend and improve their public policies, thereby contributing to the fight against poverty.
Moreover, the tax authority of the state where the subsidiary is being audited has no way of investigating the accounts of the subsidiary on the other end of the transaction, and there is no way of proving that the two subsidiaries have been distorting their prices. And on top of the tax question comes the issue of accounting for intangible services between subsidiaries and with the parent company sale and use of patents, licenses, know-how, research and development, etc.
The transfer prices for these services are subject to no checks or controls. Unilever, for instance, sells iodized salt and vitamin-rich soup in India and in Ghana; Essilor, low-cost eyeglasses in India; Danone, vey cheap yoghourts in South Africa… Energy companies are looking into strategies for providing access to electricity or gas for the poorest in the South and maintaining access for economically insecure groups in the North.
The cost structure is revised, with companies gaining in volume what they lose in margins. However, several aspects need to be underlined, which raise questions as to whether these BoP strategies are always the right way to promote development.
Firstly, some of the products sold are not products that bring a significant improvement in quality of life; rather, they help to turn the poor into consumers of brand products for example, detergents , thereby competing with local producers, and perhaps creating new superfluous needs of no real benefit to the poor Renouard, We should therefore, I suggest, analyze BoP initiatives on a case-by-case basis to see which ones make an effective contribution and which are simply a commercial ploy.
Secondly, these strategies do not question the conventional capitalist economic model and do not address the issue, raised earlier, of how to share economic value fairly. The implementation of these innovative programs should therefore be accompanied by an examination of the fiscal responsibility of companies, and of the other forms of responsibility — social, societal and political — that I outline below. Improving the working conditions and social protection of employees is a key element in the contribution that business can make to development. In this respect, advocating higher social standards in every country is a way of promoting the fight against poverty in the South as well as improving the employment situation in the North.
Indeed some companies, such as the distribution group Carrefour, have taken a clear stance in favor of the establishment of binding international rules, in order to level the playing field. This dovetails with a number of analyses cf. The primary area involves their responsibility to their consumers and customers, which is a way of assessing the quality, and social utility, of the goods and services provided Holley, The secondary area concerns their responsibility to their subcontractors or suppliers; as regards the subcontractors, this responsibility is sometimes virtually equivalent to their responsibility to their employees, notably in cases where major groups outsource a large proportion of the functions that they see as marginal, or as good candidates for cutbacks.
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Companies — recognizing the threat to their reputation posed by the risk of their subcontractors violating the principles of the ILO or human rights — are increasingly vigilant: witness the example of Nike. A clear distinction needs to be made between that which comes under the direct responsibility of businesses and that which comes under the category of charitable donations, via philanthropy.
Societal responsibility is about the way a company guarantees its social utility for the groups concerned by its presence, and reduces the negative impacts that might accompany its activity. From this point of view, societal responsibility has a positive and a negative application.
The example of the oil industry well illustrates the challenges faced by businesses that have a heavy socio-economic, environmental and political impact on their environment; they have tended to focus defensively on sporadic philanthropic actions that have proved, over the years, to be counterproductive Renouard, ; Idemudia, We should remember that companies might sometimes operate in countries that are non-democratic, or where human rights abuses are attested. I believe it is essential to distinguish this component of CSR in the broad sense from its more central element, namely societal responsibility.
For three main raisons: firstly, we need to ensure that philanthropic practices designed to promote development and the fight against poverty do not become counter-productive, helping to sustain relationships of dependency, as has often been the case in the past Herman, ; Isieh, Also, while companies have, and must accept, a number of very direct responsibilities with regard to the various groups with which they interact, it is not their role to substitute for the authorities in determining local development projects: these are political decisions.
Companies that have become involved in charitable projects have sometimes exceeded their role as economic actors; they should not take the place of the citizens and public agencies concerned by these projects.
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Finally, societal responsibility implies a willingness to internalize the negative externalities of the business, whereas philanthropy obeys a different logic: it is about giving back to society a part of what was gained in the context of a system whose workings are unquestioned. If I insist so much on the distinction between societal responsibility and philanthropy, it is because businesses have so often blurred the boundaries, by not supplying precise criteria on their responsibility towards their environment and thus, deliberately or otherwise, diverting attention by lumping societal actions together with contributions that are useful but not directly related to their core business.
From the ethical standpoint advocated in these pages, philanthropy is no substitute for the determined implementation of principles such as the doctrine of double effect. From the viewpoint of economic and financial, as well as political, responsibility, the question of the taxes and other duties that the oil companies pay to the authorities appears to be decisive, as does the issue of the fight against corruption. Two channels are currently being explored: since , businesses and governments have been encouraged to sign up to the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative EITI , under which the former publish the payments they make to host countries, while the latter publish what they receive from extractive companies.
There is also the Dodd-Frank Act, which obliges U. Similar legislation is being studied within the EU. All of this represents a major step forward. This disparity calls for the imposition of taxes on high incomes, but such measures are currently non-existent. There is also the question of the conditions for social and intercultural dialogue in multinational groups, and the issue of the quality of relations between oil company employees and the rest of the population — a key factor for fostering a better climate within the broader society.